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What is LLMOps? Exploring the fundamentals and significance of large language model operations

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With the emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs), the field of natural language processing has experienced a paradigm shift. LLMs, such as GPT-4, have demonstrated unprecedented language generation capabilities, opening up a world of possibilities in various industries and applications. However, effectively deploying and managing these models pose significant technical challenges. This is where LLMOps (Large Language Model Operations) comes into play.

LLMOps is a set of practices and principles designed to bridge the gap between LLM development and deployment. It encompasses a comprehensive approach to managing, fine-tuning, and optimizing large language models, ensuring optimal performance, scalability, and efficiency.

By implementing an effective LLMOps strategy, organizations can harness the full potential of LLMs to improve customer experience, drive revenue growth, and gain a competitive edge.
This article sheds light on LLMOps, exploring the best practices, tools, and techniques that empower organizations to effectively deploy and manage large language models.

What is LLMOps?

LLMOps, or Large Language Model Operations, refers to the operational management of large language models in production environments. It encompasses the practices, techniques, and tools used to effectively deploy, monitor, and maintain LLMs, and tries to bridge the gap between LLM development and deployment. It employs automation and monitoring processes throughout the LLM development process, including integration, testing, releasing, deployment, and infrastructure management. 

LLMOps is an extension of the broader MLOps (Machine Learning Operations) field that focuses specifically on LLMs’ unique challenges and requirements. Like MLOps, LLMOps involves collaboration among data scientists, software engineers, DevOps engineers, and other stakeholders to handle the complexity of developing and deploying LLM solutions.

How is LLMOps different from MLOps?

LLMOps (Large Language Model Operations) and MLOps (Machine Learning Operations) are related but distinct concepts. While they share some similarities, there are substantial differences between the two.

  1. Model complexity: LLMOps specifically focuses on the operational management of large language models. LLMs, such as OpenAI’s GPT-3 or GPT-4, have billions of parameters and are trained on massive amounts of text data. On the other hand, MLOps encompasses the operational management of a broader range of machine learning models, which can vary in complexity and size.
  2. Language-specific considerations: LLMOps consider the unique challenges and considerations related to language models. Language models have specific characteristics, such as generating human-like text or understanding language context, requiring specialized deployment, monitoring, and maintenance techniques. MLOps, on the other hand, encompasses a wider range of machine learning models beyond language models. While language-specific considerations are important in LLMOps, MLOps deals with diverse types of models across various domains, such as computer vision, recommendation systems, and time series forecasting.
  3. Fine-tuning vs. training from scratch: LLMOps often involve fine-tuning pre-trained language models rather than training them from scratch. Fine-tuning allows adapting the pre-trained models to specific downstream tasks, leveraging the knowledge and parameters already learned during pre-training. In contrast, traditional MLOps may involve training models entirely from scratch or using transfer learning techniques.
  4. Prompt engineering: LLMOps entails the practice of prompt engineering, which involves crafting input prompts or instructions to guide the language model’s output. Prompt engineering plays a crucial role in shaping the behavior and generating desired outputs from LLMs. Traditional MLOps may focus more on feature engineering or data preprocessing techniques rather than prompt engineering.
  5. Ethical and bias considerations: LLMOps addresses the ethical implications and potential biases associated with large language models. Language models can inadvertently generate biased, harmful, or inappropriate content, which requires careful monitoring and mitigation strategies in LLMOps. MLOps, while also concerned with ethics and fairness, may not specifically address the unique challenges related to language model biases.
  6. Model interpretability: Interpreting the decision-making process of large language models is an ongoing challenge. LLMOps may involve techniques and tools for understanding the reasoning behind the model’s outputs, generating explanations, or identifying potential biases. Model interpretability may have different considerations and techniques in traditional MLOps.
  7. Model size and resource requirements: LLMOps often deals with extremely large language models with billions of parameters. Managing the storage, computational requirements, and scalability of these models present unique challenges in LLMOps. Traditional MLOps may handle a wider range of model sizes, with different considerations for resource utilization.

It’s important to note that LLMOps and MLOps also share many common aspects, such as version control, model deployment, monitoring, and collaboration between data scientists, machine learning engineers, and operations teams. LLMOps can be seen as a specialization within the broader field of MLOps, tailored to the unique characteristics and challenges posed by large language models in natural language processing tasks.

Launch your project with LeewayHertz!

We leverage LLMOps practices for efficient deployment, monitoring and maintenance of LLMs, ensuring your models consistently meet and exceed expectations, providing enduring value throughout their lifecycle.

What led to the emergence and a surge in popularity of LLMOps?

The LLMOps framework emerged and recently garnered significant attention, primarily due to the growing popularity of LLMs. Several key factors contribute to the surge in the popularity of LLMOps, including:

  1. Media attention: The release of ChatGPT in December 2022 brought significant media attention to large language models. This showcased the capabilities of LLMs in various applications and generated widespread interest for the same.
  2. Diverse applications: LLMs have found applications in various areas, such as chatbots, writing assistants, and programming assistants. From personal chat experiences to specialized tasks like copywriting and code generation, LLMs have demonstrated their versatility and potential across industries.
  3. Experiences and challenges: As more people develop and deploy LLM-powered applications, they share their experiences and challenges. It has become evident that while it may be easy to create something cool with LLMs, ensuring production readiness is a complex task that requires careful consideration and expertise.
  4. Unique challenges: Building production-ready LLM-powered applications presents distinct challenges compared to traditional AI products based on classical ML models. LLMs require specific tools, techniques, and best practices to manage their lifecycle effectively and overcome challenges related to data, model development, deployment, and performance optimization.

To address the challenges associated with developing LLM-powered applications, the concept of LLMOps came into existence. LLMOps aims to streamline the LLM development and deployment process, improve efficiency, and ensure the reliable and effective operation of LLMs in real-world applications.

Benefits of employing LLMOps

The benefits of employing LLMOps include:

  • Efficiency: LLMOps enables faster development and deployment of LLM models and pipelines. It streamlines the process, allowing data teams to iterate and experiment more efficiently, leading to higher-quality models delivered in less time.
  • Scalability: LLMOps facilitates the management of large-scale LLM deployments. It provides tools and practices to oversee and control numerous models, ensuring reproducibility, collaboration, and efficient release management. This scalability is crucial for handling complex applications and high-volume data processing.
  • Risk reduction: LLMOps helps mitigate risks associated with LLM development and deployment. By incorporating best practices and governance mechanisms, LLMOps ensures compliance with regulations and industry policies. It enables transparency, traceability, and faster response to regulatory or security requirements.
  • Collaboration and team alignment: LLMOps promotes collaboration and alignment across data scientists, ML engineers, and other stakeholders involved in LLM development. It establishes streamlined workflows, version control, and shared resources, fostering effective communication and coordination.
  • Improved model monitoring and maintenance: LLMOps emphasizes robust model monitoring, allowing for proactive detection of issues such as model drift or performance degradation. By continuously monitoring LLM behavior and performance, organizations can ensure the models are reliable and effective over time, enabling timely updates or interventions as needed.
  • Reproducibility and experiment tracking: LLMOps platforms provide capabilities for the reproducibility of experiments and model versions. They allow tracking and managing data, code, hyperparameters, and results, facilitating collaboration, transparency, and auditability. Reproducibility ensures that experiments can be reliably replicated and compared.
  • Resource optimization: LLMOps helps optimize computational resources, such as GPUs, to reduce training and inference costs associated with LLMs. Techniques like model compression or distillation can be applied to make LLMs more efficient, ensuring cost-effective operations.
  • Faster time to market: By streamlining the LLM development lifecycle, improving collaboration, and automating deployment processes, LLMOps enables faster time to market for LLM-powered applications. This gives organizations a competitive edge and the ability to deliver innovative products or services quickly.

Overall, LLMOps provides a structured framework and set of practices to manage LLM development, deployment, and maintenance complexity effectively. It maximizes efficiency, scalability, and risk reduction while promoting collaboration, reproducibility, and optimization in the operational management of LLMs.

LLMOps pipeline: A walkthrough of the LLM deployment process and workflow

LLMOps pipeline refers to the end-to-end process and workflow for managing and deploying large language models in production to ensure optimal performance and reliability. It combines the principles of MLOps with specific considerations for LLMs.

The LLMOps pipeline encompasses various stages involved in developing, deploying, and maintaining LLMs. These stages can include:

Data collection

Data collection involves sourcing the internal data that will be used to train and fine-tune the language model. In this step, the focus is on gathering relevant data from various sources within the organization. This may include crawling document stores, accessing raw data sources, or connecting with data repositories.

  • Crawling document stores: If the organization has document stores or databases where relevant data is stored, a crawling process can be implemented to extract the required information. This involves programmatically accessing and retrieving data from these document stores.
  • Connecting with raw data sources: In some cases, the data required for the language model might be stored in raw data sources such as databases, APIs, or external services. Establishing connections and integrating with these sources allows for extracting the necessary data for training the model.

Preprocessing the data

Once the data is collected, it needs to be preprocessed to ensure it is in a suitable format for training and inference. Data preprocessing involves several steps, including data cleaning and tokenization.

  • Data cleaning: Data cleaning aims to remove any irrelevant or noisy information from the collected data. This process involves handling missing values, correcting errors, removing duplicates, and ensuring consistency in data formats. Cleaning the data helps improve the quality and reliability of the dataset.
  • Tokenization: Tokenization is a crucial step specific to transformer architectures used in large language models. Tokenization involves breaking down the text into smaller units or chunks called tokens. Depending on the tokenizer used, these tokens can be individual words, subwords, or characters. Tokenization optimizes the performance of the language model by representing the text in a structured format that the model can process efficiently.

Selection of a foundation model

Select a foundation model for your downstream tasks once the required data is collected and preprocessed. Foundation models are Large Language Models (LLMs) that have been pre-trained on large amounts of data and serve as a starting point for downstream tasks. Training a foundation model from scratch is a complex, time-consuming, and expensive process, which is why it is more practical to leverage pre-trained models.

Currently, there are two main types of foundation models that developers can choose from: proprietary models and open-source models. Consider factors such as performance, cost, ease of use, inference speed, data security and extensibility when selecting between proprietary and open-source models.

  • Proprietary models 

Proprietary models are closed-source models developed by companies with significant AI expertise and resources. These models are typically larger in size and offer better performance compared to open-source models. They are readily available and generally easy to integrate into applications. However, one drawback of proprietary models is the cost associated with their APIs (Application Programming Interfaces), which may limit accessibility for some organizations. Additionally, closed-source models may have limited flexibility for developers to customize or adapt them to specific requirements.

Examples of providers offering proprietary models include OpenAI (GPT-3, GPT-4), Cohere, AI21 Labs (Jurassic-2), and Anthropic (Claude).

  • Open-source models

On the other hand, open-source models are community-driven and often hosted on platforms like HuggingFace. These models are usually smaller in size and may have lower capabilities compared to proprietary models. However, they offer cost-effectiveness and greater flexibility for developers. Open-source models can be customized, adapted, and fine-tuned to suit specific use cases, allowing developers to have more control over the model’s behavior.

Examples of open-source models include Stable Diffusion by Stability AI, BLOOM by BigScience, LLaMA or OPT by Meta AI, Flan-T5 by Google, and GPT-J, GPT-Neo, and Pythia by Eleuther AI.

During the selection process, organizations need to evaluate their requirements, budget constraints, and the level of flexibility they desire. It is crucial to choose a foundation model that aligns with the performance needs of the application while also considering factors such as cost-effectiveness and the ability to customize the model for specific tasks. The selected foundation model serves as the basis for further LLMOps activities, enabling organizations to harness large language models’ power effectively.

Adaptation to downstream tasks

When you have finalized which foundation model to use, you can access the language model using its API. As foundation models are trained on general tasks like NLP or image synthesis, the next task would be to adapt the model to a specific downstream task so that the LLM gives the output you want. It can be achieved through the following techniques:

  • Prompt engineering: Use prompt engineering techniques to shape the input prompts to align with your desired output. Experiment with different prompt formats, provide examples of expected outputs, and leverage tools like LangChain or HoneyHive to manage and version your prompt templates.
    Prompt engineering
  • Fine-tuning pre-trained models: Fine-tune the pre-trained foundation models on your specific tasks to improve their performance. This technique involves training the model further with task-specific data, which can enhance its ability to generate desired outputs. Fine-tuning can reduce the cost of inference and optimize the model for your specific requirements.
  • External data: If the foundation models lack contextual information or access to specific documents, consider incorporating relevant external data sources. Tools like LlamaIndex, LangChain, or DUST can help connect the LLMs to external data, ensuring they have access to the necessary information for accurate and relevant responses.
  • Embeddings: Extract information from LLM APIs in the form of embeddings, such as movie summaries or product descriptions. Utilize these embeddings to build applications for tasks like search, comparison, or recommendations. Store the embeddings in vector databases like Pinecone, Weaviate, or Milvus for efficient retrieval and long-term memory.


Given the subjective nature of evaluating LLM outputs, organizations often resort to A/B testing for their models. This involves comparing multiple model variants or configurations to assess their performance and select the one that produces the desired results. Tools like HoneyHive or HumanLoop can aid in the evaluation process.

Deployment and monitoring

  • Monitor model changes: LLM models can undergo significant changes between releases, especially in addressing issues like inappropriate content generation. Regularly monitor the changes in the underlying API models and adapt your LLM deployment accordingly.
  • Utilize monitoring tools: Leverage tools like Whylabs or HumanLoop to monitor the performance of deployed LLMs. These tools can help track model behavior, identify issues, and ensure the continued effectiveness of the deployed LLMs.

Launch your project with LeewayHertz!

We leverage LLMOps practices for efficient deployment, monitoring and maintenance of LLMs, ensuring your models consistently meet and exceed expectations, providing enduring value throughout their lifecycle.

The comprehensive LLMOps tech stack

Discover the comprehensive LLMOps tech stack; here are the tools for model development, management, performance, data, and deployment:

Model development

    • Code server: Provides a development environment accessible via the browser.
    • Moby: Open-source project for containerization.
    • LMFlow: Toolbox for fine-tuning large machine learning models.
    • LoRa: Reduces trainable parameters in models through rank decomposition matrices.
    • PEFT: Enables efficient pre-trained language model adaptation without fine-tuning all parameters.
    • PaddlePaddle: Deep learning framework with support for parallel training methods.
    • ColossalAI: Supports parallel and heterogeneous training methods.
    • DeepSpeed: Enables efficient model training with a single click.
    • Aim: Log AI metadata and provide a UI for observation and comparison.
    • ClearML: ML/DL development and production suite for experiment management.
    • Sacred: Tool for configuring, organizing, logging, and reproducing experiments.

Model management

    • Netron: A visualization tool for neural networks.
    • Manifold: Model-agnostic visual debugging tool.
    • DVC: Data Version Control for managing ML projects.
    • ModelDB: Version control system for ML models.
    • Triton: Open-source inference serving software.
    • TorchServe: Serves and scales PyTorch models in production.
    • FlexGen: High-throughput generation engine for running large language models.
    • LangChain: Enables building applications with LLMs through composability.
    • LlamaIndex: Connects LLMs with external data through a central interface.

Performance management

    • PocketFlow: Framework for compressing and accelerating deep learning models.
    • Ncnn: High-performance neural network inference framework for mobile platforms.
    • TNN: Lightweight neural network inference framework.
    • Whylogs: Library for logging and summarizing datasets.
    • Evidently: Helps evaluate, test, and monitor ML model performance.
    • Great Expectations: Validates and profiles data quality in ML projects.

Data management

    • Delta Lake: Storage framework for building a Lakehouse architecture.
    • DVC: Command-line tool for data version control.
    • JuiceFS: High-performance POSIX file system for cloud-native environments.
    • LakeFS: Transforms object storage into a Git-like repository for managing data lakes.
    • PipeRider: Compares data to highlight differences impacting downstream models.
    • LUX: Python library for fast and easy data exploration.


    • Argo Workflows: Container-native workflow engine for parallel job orchestration.
    • Metaflow: Library for building and managing data science projects.
    • Airflow: Programmatically author, schedule, and monitor workflows.
    • Volcano: A batch system for Kubernetes with mechanisms for various workloads.
    • OpenPAI: Resource scheduling and cluster management platform for AI.
    • Polyaxon: Orchestration platform for machine learning management.

LLMOps best practices

Following the best practices for LLMOps can significantly contribute to LLM-powered applications’ efficiency, scalability, and reliability. Here is an elaboration on the best practices at each stage of the LLMOps process:


Conducting Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is a crucial step while preprocessing the data and preparing it for further training and evaluation. It is an iterative process wherein the characteristics of the data are analyzed to identify patterns and gain insights into the dataset’s composition. It promotes creating data sets that are shareable, editable and reproducible, allowing collaboration across data teams and enabling transparency and reproducibility in the analysis.

Visualizations are also recommended as it helps LLM model developers gain a deeper understanding of the data, identify outliers or anomalies, and communicate insights effectively.

Data preparation and prompt engineering

Transform and preprocess the data iteratively to ensure it is suitable for the downstream tasks. This may include data cleaning, aggregation, normalization, and deduplication tasks. Ensure the prepared data is visible and shareable across data teams to facilitate collaboration and confirm consistent data usage across the project.

Furthermore, develop structured and reliable prompts for LLMs that align with the desired output. Iterate on the prompts to improve their effectiveness and fine-tune the LLM’s responses.

Model fine-tuning

Utilize open-source libraries like Hugging Face Transformers, DeepSpeed, PyTorch, TensorFlow, and JAX to fine-tune the pre-trained LLM models. These libraries provide a wealth of resources, pre-built architectures, and optimization techniques for improving model performance.

Model review and governance

Implement a system to track the lineage and versions of models and pipelines. This helps ensure traceability, reproducibility, and effective management of the artifacts throughout their lifecycle.

Foster collaboration and knowledge sharing across ML models using open-source MLOps platforms like MLflow. These platforms provide features for model discovery, sharing, and collaboration among data teams.

Model inference and serving

  • Efficient model refresh: Manage the frequency of model refresh to balance the need for updated models with the computational resources required for training and deployment. Regularly evaluate and update models as needed.
  • Automation with CI/CD tools: Apply Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) principles to automate the preproduction pipeline. Utilize version control systems, repositories, and orchestrators to streamline the deployment process and ensure reproducibility.
  • REST API model endpoints: Deploy LLM models as REST API endpoints, enabling seamless integration with other systems and facilitating easy access for client applications. Consider leveraging GPU acceleration for faster inference and improved performance.

Model monitoring with human feedback

Create monitoring pipelines that continuously monitor model performance, data quality, and behavior. Implement alerts and notifications for detecting model drift and abnormal behavior, ensuring timely response and intervention.

Moreover, incorporating human feedback into the monitoring process helps identify user satisfaction with the LLM model. Leverage user feedback, evaluations, and annotations to assess model performance, identify areas for improvement, and gather training data for future iterations.

By following these best practices, LLMOps teams can streamline the development, deployment, and maintenance of LLM-powered applications, resulting in more efficient workflows, improved model performance, and enhanced user experiences.


LLMOps, which stands for Large Language Model Operations, is a dynamic and fast-developing field in the domain of artificial intelligence. With the increasing use of large language models in various applications, there is a pressing demand for efficient strategies and practices to manage and operate these models effectively. Although the term “LLMOps” is relatively recent, it signifies the growing awareness of the distinct challenges and factors that come into play when deploying applications powered by large language models. In essence, LLMOps focuses on managing and optimizing the operations of these models to ensure their reliable and efficient performance in real-world applications.

As organizations continue to explore the potential of LLMs, LLMOps will play a crucial role in managing the lifecycle of these powerful models, which encompasses selecting the right foundation models, adapting them to specific tasks, evaluating their performance, and deploying and monitoring them in production environments. The focus is on maximizing the benefits of LLMs while ensuring efficient operations, scalability, and reliability.

Looking to integrate LLM and NLP into your business? LeewayHertz stands as your ideal partner, providing unparalleled expertise in LLMOps. Let’s collaborate and collectively drive success for your projects.

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Author’s Bio


Akash Takyar

Akash Takyar LinkedIn
CEO LeewayHertz
Akash Takyar is the founder and CEO at LeewayHertz. The experience of building over 100+ platforms for startups and enterprises allows Akash to rapidly architect and design solutions that are scalable and beautiful.
Akash's ability to build enterprise-grade technology solutions has attracted over 30 Fortune 500 companies, including Siemens, 3M, P&G and Hershey’s.
Akash is an early adopter of new technology, a passionate technology enthusiast, and an investor in AI and IoT startups.

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